Sunday, 26 August 2018

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and how DHCP Works



DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Its network management protocol and used for automatically assign IP (Internet Protocol) address to device. By IP address, device able to communicates with each other devices on network or internet. DHCP Server also provides Subnet Mask, DNS server and Gateway. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol mostly used in large area networks because is not possible for human being to give IP address every device. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is based on “Client-Server model”. If the DHCP is not available then we needs to give IP address to device for communicate. When we don’t assign any IP address to device then devices automatically configure itself with IP address by using APIPA (Automatic Private IP Address). APIPA provides class B range IP address and APIPA range is to 

How DHCP works:-

When client boots up so the client send a broadcast request for find DHCP Server. The broadcast request called “DISCOVER” or “DISCOVERDHCP”. If DHCP Server is available then DHCP Server receives “DISCOVER” request packets. Now DHCP Server searches the availability of IP address and temporarily reserves that address for the client. The server also configures DNS and Gateway. Then DHCP Server send “DHCPOFFER” request packet with IP address information to Client. If the client use this IP address than Client sends “DHCPREQUEST” packet to DHCP Server. Now the DHCP Server send an “ACK” for known Client using that IP address and the client get an IP address.
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